amarchinthevines

Learning about wine, vines and vignerons whilst living in the Languedoc


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New vines, old grapes – Segrairals

En francais

The new plantation, originally designed for the parcel at Sainte Suzanne contains a number of rare grape varieties. That parcel has been so wet that Jeff decided not to go ahead there, instead he planted them in Segrairals after grubbing up some of its Cabernet Sauvignon vines. To the right of the Cabernet the white vines were planted with red varieties to the left side.

White

  • Clairette

Origins: A Mediterranean grape, famously associated with Adissan in the Hérault. There are different varieties; Clairette Blanche, Clairette Rose, Clairette Musquée etc. (Jeff has had Musquée for some years, this was one of the grapes which Domaine de Vassal had not known about until Jeff visited). It is also known as Blanquette and Malvoisie (not to be confused with the Italian grape of that name). 2,200ha are planted, down from 14,000 in 1958.

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Clairette, from Pierre Galet’s Dictionnairedes cépages

Bunches: above average in size, compact, cylindrical with average sized grapes. Leaves are quite round though the top sinuses are distinct.

Growing: Late budding, ripens at a normal rate*, vigorous so might need pruning. Can be vulnerable to mildew and vers de la grappe (moth larvae which grow in the berry, the juice can then spoil the whole bunch).

Wine: Fresh, quite high alcohol with relatively low acidity

  • Picardan

Origins: South of France, Provence (this is a grape which can be used in Chateauneuf Du Pape). Sometimes called Oeillade Blanche (not related to Oeillade Noir which Jeff has already), Aragnan and Milhaud Blanc. In 2011 only 1 ha was being grown, that in Provence.

Bunches: average sized, compact, long stems with small to medium grapes which start a yellowy green and develop a pink tinge by maturity. Leaves have 5 distinct lobes with marked teeth

Growing: Late budding, vigorous, ripens at a normal rate. Quite hardy against disease but prone to mites.

Wine: usually blended with others, often in rosé wine, aromatic.

  • Olivette Blanche

Origins: Unknown though likely southern France, not related to Olivette Noire. Sometimes called Servan Olivet or Rognon. One advantage of Olivette Blanche is that the flowers are female so it is a handy variety to plant amongst others which are dominated by male flowers. Only 1,8ha are known to be planted so this is a coup for Jeff.

Bunches: average sized, straight rather than conical in shape. Stalks stay green. Irregular sized and shaped grapes which can grow big. Greeny yellow in colour and fleshy. Leaves are 5 lobed though these are not distinct V shaped sinuses help to distinguish it.

Growing: Average budding, vigour and ripening. Sensitive to coulure and millerandage (meaning some berries don’t develop in the bunches).

Wine: As a result of its irregular growth this is not an easy grape to prune and train so it has become little grown.

  • Servant

Servan

Origins: Probably Languedoc. Sometimes confused with Le Gros Vert which is a different grape. Also known as Servan, Colombal and Nonay. Only 75ha remain in the Hérault (there used to be more than 4,000ha) with another 50ha in Italy.

Bunches: Average to big in size with grapes which have quite thin skins and turn slightly pinkish on maturity. The grapes are quite fleshy. Leaves have 5 distinct lobes and deep sinuses.

Growing: Budding is normal, ripening later than average. Vigorous growth and as the vine ages it starts to grow lots of grapillons (side bunches). Quite a vulnerable variety, prone to millerandage, mildew, oidium and does not like the soil to be too dry.

Wine: Neutral, lasts well (The name Servan means conserves)

  • Terret

Origins: Languedoc. There are different types and Jeff has these in Peilhan vineyard too; Terret Bourret or gris and Terret Monstre or blanc. Another variety used in making Chateauneuf Du Pape and other Rhone wines. This variety has doubled in surface area in the Languedoc in the last 50 years.

Terret_blanc

Terret Blanc, from wikimedia

Bunches: Average to big in size, the bunches develop in a pyramid shape and are compact. Grapes can be round, thick skinned and juicy. The leaves tend to redden in early autumn. Leaves are fairly compact the top 4 lobes looking like one large one.

Growing: Late budding and vigorous. Prone to mildew and oidium as well as vers de la grappe. Can get sunburned easily.

Wine: Fresh, light, dry and aromatic.

Reds

  • Aramon

Origins: Probably Languedoc. Used to be planted all over the region, one of its names was Pisse-vin because it is the most fertile of all grapes and produces large quantities of low alcohol wine. This was the grape which made most of the wine given to troops in the French Army in World War 1 as well as sold to the ordinary people of Paris. There were over 150,000ha in 1958 now there are only 2,260ha.

Bunches: Conical shaped and very big, weighing 400-600 grammes even over 1kg. The grapes are also large in size, spherical and very juicy with thin skins meaning the grapes can burst open if not handled carefully. Leaves are thin and 3 lobed

Growing: Early budding but average ripening dates. Sensitive to mildew but can resist oidium. Also vulnerable to mites, vers de la grappe and fungal problems.

Wine: Fairly neutral with little colour if allowed to grow unchecked. With careful pruning and green harvesting the wine can be fresh and juicy.

  • Grand Noir De La Calmette

Origins: This is a cross, made in 1855, of Petit Bouschet and Aramon, bears some resemblance to Piqupoul Noir which is also a cross of Petit Bouschet. It has almost disappeared so these few vines are a real rarity, now only 0,4ha in the whole of France though there are 1,000ha in Portugal and more around the New World. Also called Gros Noir and Sumo tinto.

Grand Noir

Bunches: Average to big in size, cylindrical in shape with short, woody stalks. The grapes are average in size but some bunches are prone to undeveloped green berries. The skins are quite thick and a rich purple. The juice is quite sweet and reddish as are the pips. Leaves have 5 lobes with prominent teeth and look long.

Growing: Very late budding, vigorous in growth, normal maturity. A little sensitive to oidium, less so to mildew. Hates frosts.

Wine: Low alcohol and ages quite quickly.

 


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Coutelou renewed

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En Francais

You may recall that for French bureaucratic reasons the Coutelou domaine name had to change this year. Mas Coutelou was a combination of the surnames of Jeff’s parents, Mas being his mother’s family name. However, Mas also means a homestead or farm and only wines under Appellation or IGP labels are allowed to have that name. So, family name or not, Jeff’s Vin De France wines, Mas Coutelou for many years, had to have new branding.

Since he was already planning to release new products such as a fine (eau de vie), a kina (like a vermouth) and other spirits Jeff chose ‘Vins et Spiritueux Coutelou’. I have tried the Kina and like it, even though it’s not really my thing. Made from wine and organic herbs from the vineyards it is a very enjoyable aperitif.

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It seems that renewal is the signature of the year. There has been much updating of the cellar in recent times; roof, insulation, a form of air conditioning, division of cuves to make it possible to vinify smaller parcels and quantities, resin flooring, better drainage, amphorae, temperature controlled stainless steel tanks. A new management space means that it is easier to see at a glance what is where and adds a tidiness to what was a more chaotic central space of the cellar.

Upstairs the new office space has been fitted out beautifully. Jeff commissioned a couple of local carpenters to make furniture. Using old barrels and a foudre of more than 130 years old they made a cupboard, with themed shelves and a stunning chair for the desk. They are real works of art, true craftsmanship. A table from the Coutelou family home has been skilfully renewed to add a feature to the space.

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The empty parcel next to Ste Suzanne

And, in the vineyards more renewal. The small parcel at Sainte Suzanne which has been fallow for many years was supposed to be planted last year, in 2017. A very wet spell then and another this Spring has meant that those plans had to be shelved as the parcel was too wet. However, the vines were already ordered so Jeff has planted them in Segrairals where he had grubbed up some Cabernet Sauvignon. Instead of that extraneous variety Jeff has planted Aramon Noir and Aramon Gris (Aramon being the original grape in the parcel next to Ste Suzanne), Terret, Clairette Blanche, Clairette Rose, Picardan, Olivette, Servan (related to Syrah) and Grand Noir De La Calmette. I must admit to never having heard of some of these. Time to consult my copy of Galet’s wonderful Encycolpedia of Grapes. The Coutelou vineyards are fast becoming a treasure store of rare grapes, there are now several dozen varieties planted.

The very hot and dry month combined with the widespread mildew outbreak have meant that Jeff has spent many hours tending this new plantation, spraying and watering to help the new plants to survive. Happily, all is well.

2018 will always be remembered by Languedoc vignerons as a year of headaches and heartaches, months spent on tractors fighting disease, easy to become disheartened. The Coutelou renewals help to remind us that such problems are temporary.


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Grapes and climate change

Jeff forwarded me an interesting article from Le Figaro this week. The subject was research published in the journal Nature, Climate, Change focusing on the effects of climate change on viticulture and the likely need for change.

NCC

Some, such as Trump, deny such change of course but those of us in the real world can consider evidence. Vendanges in France now take place on average 2-3 weeks before they used to around 1970. The long history of wine writing means that we know that in Burgundy, for example, harvests are at their earliest in 700 years. Extreme weather in all seasons is more common, made worse by some agricultural practices such as soil impaction from machinery as well as the effects of herbicides which discourage rain from soaking into the soils.

As average temperatures rise seemingly year on year and water shortages occur more frequently in the Languedoc and other regions then viticulteurs face the problem that traditional grape varieties ripen earlier and earlier and struggle in drought conditions such as those shown in the map below indicating ’emergency’ zones in summer 2017.

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The researchers, such as Elizabeth Wolkovich from the Harvard University Centre for the Environment, suggest that testing different grape varieties will be necessary. At present many of the world’s leading wine producing countries are dominated by 12 ‘international varieties’ such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Syrah, Riesling and Pinot Noir.* The list at the bottom of the page shows how much these vineyards are dominated by the international varieties.

France is more varied with 43.5% planted with these grapes (though 85% under the top 20 grapes). Altogether more than 300 grape varieties are planted around France. Organisations promoting rare and forgotten grapes, eg Wine Mosaic, are gaining traction and the researchers believe that by finding grapes with longer growing seasons and later ripening then regions badly affected by climate change might find ways to preserve their vineyards and traditions.

Labelled

I have reported many times how Jeff Coutelou has been planting many different cépages. He believes that not only do they provide variety in the vineyard and bottle but that the mix of different grapes in vineyards helps to prevent disease spreading. Castets, Piquepoul Noir, Terret Blanc, Morastel, and even an Inconnue (unknown) are grapes planted int he last few years and he is looking at others such as Picardan which is related to Clairette and Mauzac. Great wines such as Flower Power have resulted from these plantings, more will follow.

This is the way forward, experimenting to find grapes which make good quality wine and which can stand the climatic changes which we face.

 

* % area of vineyards under the 12 varieties

China – 93 (almost 75% Cabernet Sauvignon)

New Zealand 91.6

Australia 84.5

Chile 77.6

USA 70