amarchinthevines

Learning about wine, vines and vignerons whilst living in the Languedoc


1 Comment

Vendanges 2018 – Part 5

Monday 10th to Friday 14th – in the cellar

Tanks before vendanges and on Friday

Cellar work becomes the focus of vendanges as more and more of the cuves are filled. The grapes pass through a variety of actions to produce the wine. Hopefully this post will help to explain some of these actions.

White grapes are usually pressed quickly after entering the cellar to get the juice without too much contact with skins which would colour the juice. Orange wines, becoming more popular every year, are made by such contact, macerating the juice on the skins, to extract colour and tannins.

P1040286

To prove I do some work!! (photo by Flora Rey)

 

 

After sorting, red grapes are sent to the tanks either destemmed or in whole bunches as I have described before in this series. That decision would be influenced by the quality of the grapes and what Jeff feels will be the best for that particular harvest. In either case, as with orange wine, the juice sits with the skins, flesh and pips for a while to extract colour, flavour and tannins.

Busy cellar; Louis putting the destemmer to work

Too much skin contact becomes counter productive though. As fermentation begins the grapes become hot and it easy to extract too much tannin for example which will make the wine tough and harsh. Yeasts which feed the fermentation produce lees as they die off and these can become a cause of rot and off flavours unless removed. Therefore the infant wines pass through actions known as débourbage and délestage.

Débourbage is where the juice is run off from the cuve leaving the marc behind, the sludge of skins and stems. The juice goes into another cuve where fermentation will continue without the risk of going off. The marc can be used for distilling alcohol.

P1040309

Débourbage

Délestage is similar but as the juice is run off it passes through a basket to collect seeds which might add bitter tannins. The marc might then be lightly pressed, producing more juice which can be added to the original juice, adding more tannin and alcohol.

P1040300

These two processes mean that the wine becomes clearer and, for a natural producer like Jeff, that filtering is not needed at a later stage. The wine will be clear, juicy and fruity.

P1040326

Looking into this cuve before remontage you can see the skins lying on top of the juice

Whilst in contact with the juice the skins rise to the top of the tank and form a crust (chapeau) on top of the juice. If left like that this cap would become dried out and add bitterness to the wine. Meanwhile the juice fermenting below would produce lots of carbon dioxide which would be trapped inside. Therefore the juice needs to be passed over the crust to moisten it, release the CO2 and to get the best out of the skins and grape flesh.

P1040274

Remontage (photo by Flora Rey)

There are two methods of doing this, remontage and pigeage. Remontage is pumping the juice from the bottom back over the crust, rather like a fireman hosing down a blaze. Pigeage is where the crust is pushed down into the juice, traditionally by treading but, more usually, by pushing it with a fork or tool. This is hard work believe me. When Steeve, a friend of Jeff’s from Besancon, carried out pigeage on the La Garrigue Syrah on Friday the crust was easily 30-40cm thick.

Jeff wants to interfere with the wines as little as possible but these actions are an important part of winemaking. Experience and observation helped him to find the balance between overworking the wine and helping it to make itself.

P1040268

Pipes running in all directions, a good memory is required


2 Comments

Hold the presses!

IMG_0160

   IMG_0141

Both of these objects are wine presses, one more modern than the other. Whilst the large press has taken the bulk of the work in recent weeks the small press has its role too. It is also an olive press incidentally. It is used mainly for small production wines and I was lucky enough to be trusted to supervise its use for the pressing of muscat and grenache grapes which will make into the fortified wines which Jeff Coutelou produces in addition to his table wines. The ‘vieux grenache’ wines are made in different methods as I shall describe in future posts including a fantastic solera type system with wines dating back many, many years to previous generations of the Coutelou family. They are, of course, delicious.

Michel unloads the grapes, he is in Jeff's words his 'main gauche' (left hand)

Michel unloads the grapes, he is in Jeff’s words his ‘main gauche’ (left hand)

 

Grenache and muscat grapes ready for pressing

Grenache and muscat grapes ready for pressing

 

 

 

 

The grapes are sorted and then loaded into the cage and wheeled into place. The press is lowered and the juice begins to flow.

Pressing

Pressing

The major lesson is to be careful about how much pressure is used as if you press too hard the mass of grapes, stalks and pips becomes too hard and the juice will not flow freely. I confess to pressing a little too hard at first but fortunately rectified it before any damage was done. The juice is taken to container for fermentation and the pressed grapes, the gateau, is disassembled and returned to press for a second and third time. The gateau becomes almost a work of art.

Gateau in the sunshine

Gateau in the sunshine

The wine begins its fermentation in the tank and after this has finished the wine is put into barrel for the first time. Depending on its development Jeff will blend this wine with previous vintages or allow it to develop in barrel for a number of years.

IMG_0188

Tina transfers the fermented wine into barrel

The other pressing I supervised was the Carignan Blanc. Jeff was pleased with this crop and decided that he would make a new white wine using only these grapes. The procedure was identical though I thought I’d highlight one extra feature. Many people commented after a previous post that they were disappointed I did not get my socks and shoes off and start to tread the grapes. Well I was rather shocked to see that treading does still happen! Instead of bare feet though new, perfectly clean wellington boots do the job, a light pressing (so that ruled me out!) to start the process moving even before the press gets to work.

Treading

Treading

Yours truly at the press

Yours truly at the press

The gateau was just as spectacular and you can see in the photo below the layers created by the 3 pressings.

IMG_0178

A serious point. Jeff was keen to point out that the Carignan Blanc grapes took 10 people 2 hours to pick. We took a whole day to press the grapes, myself and supervision from the patron with others helping to take the gateau apart and then reassemble it for the various pressings. The grapes will be fermented, pumped over, stored in barrel. So when we think twice about the price of wine think about the amount of work which has gone into it, especially for crafted, artisanal wines such as these. And after all that only 420 litres were produced, around 500 bottles or so.

On a less serious note, we now know who is the patron, let me introduce Icare, the real driving force behind Mas Coutelou.

IMG_0179

Icare takes the wheel