amarchinthevines

Learning about wine, vines and vignerons whilst living in the Languedoc


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New vines, old grapes – back to the future

Version francaise

Following on from the new plantation of old and rare grape varieties in Segrairals, Jeff wants to develop further this aspect of the Coutelou vineyards. He has been consulting with the nursery in the Aude which specialises in organic and old vines and has placed orders for more.

Amongst those are some known in other regions and countries. Alicante is a variety known in Spain as Grenache Tintorera, a cross between Grenache Noir and petit Bouschet. Widely grown in Portugal and Spain its red flesh which adds a deep colour to wine is becoming fashionable in the USA. Farana is a grape which was grown in Algeria mainly but after its independence from France plantings there have shrunk to very little. Spain has some and there is a little in the Barossa Valley in South Australia. Beni carlo is a grape better known as Bobal, usually grown in Spain and resistant to extreme climatic conditions. Like Alicante Beni carlo is good for adding colour and tannin to wine. Lledoner Pelut, a Spanish grape by origin, is a mutation of Grenache but has the advantage of being more resistant to rot.

 

More familiar varieties such as Aramon, Morrastel, Terret Noir and Clairette Blanche, already planted elsewhere in Jeff’s vineyards, will become more widely planted.

Varieties such as Villard Blanc, Lignan and Mancin are also little known grapes which will begin to bear fruit. Villard was a cross made by a horticulturist and his father-in-law who gave their names to it (also known as 12375 Seyve-Villard). There used to be 30,000ha in the South West of France as late as the 1960s, now only a handful of hectares remain in the Ardeche and Tarn but also in Hungary. Very resistant to mildew. Lignan is unusual in being a grape which ripens before Chasselas, the benchmark for maturity. Originally Italian (known as Luglienga) Lignan Blanc is widely grown as a table grape, is vigorous and needs heavy pruning. Mancin was originally a Bordeaux grape but has disappeared there and little grown elsewhere. Another early maturing grape it adds body to wine when assembled.

 

Jeff has ordered a few vines of each of these as well as more of the Inconnue which is already planted in Font D’Oulette (unknown elsewhere), Marocain Noir, Oeillade Noir and Valenci Blanco some of which are so rare I could not find any information about them! They will be added to vineyards to replace vines which don’t take after grafting or simply die.

Why is Jeff so dedicated to planting and conserving these grapes? Partly because he simply believes it is simply the right thing to do, partly through passion for vines and their history as well as the traditions of French viticulture. It is also a question of diversity in a sea of vineyards across the region. And, in an age of climate change, it behoves viticulteurs to look at how they are going to respond to more extreme weather conditions in future. Finally, these grapes will certainly add a unique character to the Coutelou wines. Old vines but the way forward too.

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New vines, old grapes – Segrairals

En francais

The new plantation, originally designed for the parcel at Sainte Suzanne contains a number of rare grape varieties. That parcel has been so wet that Jeff decided not to go ahead there, instead he planted them in Segrairals after grubbing up some of its Cabernet Sauvignon vines. To the right of the Cabernet the white vines were planted with red varieties to the left side.

White

  • Clairette

Origins: A Mediterranean grape, famously associated with Adissan in the Hérault. There are different varieties; Clairette Blanche, Clairette Rose, Clairette Musquée etc. (Jeff has had Musquée for some years, this was one of the grapes which Domaine de Vassal had not known about until Jeff visited). It is also known as Blanquette and Malvoisie (not to be confused with the Italian grape of that name). 2,200ha are planted, down from 14,000 in 1958.

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Clairette, from Pierre Galet’s Dictionnairedes cépages

Bunches: above average in size, compact, cylindrical with average sized grapes. Leaves are quite round though the top sinuses are distinct.

Growing: Late budding, ripens at a normal rate*, vigorous so might need pruning. Can be vulnerable to mildew and vers de la grappe (moth larvae which grow in the berry, the juice can then spoil the whole bunch).

Wine: Fresh, quite high alcohol with relatively low acidity

  • Picardan

Origins: South of France, Provence (this is a grape which can be used in Chateauneuf Du Pape). Sometimes called Oeillade Blanche (not related to Oeillade Noir which Jeff has already), Aragnan and Milhaud Blanc. In 2011 only 1 ha was being grown, that in Provence.

Bunches: average sized, compact, long stems with small to medium grapes which start a yellowy green and develop a pink tinge by maturity. Leaves have 5 distinct lobes with marked teeth

Growing: Late budding, vigorous, ripens at a normal rate. Quite hardy against disease but prone to mites.

Wine: usually blended with others, often in rosé wine, aromatic.

  • Olivette Blanche

Origins: Unknown though likely southern France, not related to Olivette Noire. Sometimes called Servan Olivet or Rognon. One advantage of Olivette Blanche is that the flowers are female so it is a handy variety to plant amongst others which are dominated by male flowers. Only 1,8ha are known to be planted so this is a coup for Jeff.

Bunches: average sized, straight rather than conical in shape. Stalks stay green. Irregular sized and shaped grapes which can grow big. Greeny yellow in colour and fleshy. Leaves are 5 lobed though these are not distinct V shaped sinuses help to distinguish it.

Growing: Average budding, vigour and ripening. Sensitive to coulure and millerandage (meaning some berries don’t develop in the bunches).

Wine: As a result of its irregular growth this is not an easy grape to prune and train so it has become little grown.

  • Servant

Servan

Origins: Probably Languedoc. Sometimes confused with Le Gros Vert which is a different grape. Also known as Servan, Colombal and Nonay. Only 75ha remain in the Hérault (there used to be more than 4,000ha) with another 50ha in Italy.

Bunches: Average to big in size with grapes which have quite thin skins and turn slightly pinkish on maturity. The grapes are quite fleshy. Leaves have 5 distinct lobes and deep sinuses.

Growing: Budding is normal, ripening later than average. Vigorous growth and as the vine ages it starts to grow lots of grapillons (side bunches). Quite a vulnerable variety, prone to millerandage, mildew, oidium and does not like the soil to be too dry.

Wine: Neutral, lasts well (The name Servan means conserves)

  • Terret

Origins: Languedoc. There are different types and Jeff has these in Peilhan vineyard too; Terret Bourret or gris and Terret Monstre or blanc. Another variety used in making Chateauneuf Du Pape and other Rhone wines. This variety has doubled in surface area in the Languedoc in the last 50 years.

Terret_blanc

Terret Blanc, from wikimedia

Bunches: Average to big in size, the bunches develop in a pyramid shape and are compact. Grapes can be round, thick skinned and juicy. The leaves tend to redden in early autumn. Leaves are fairly compact the top 4 lobes looking like one large one.

Growing: Late budding and vigorous. Prone to mildew and oidium as well as vers de la grappe. Can get sunburned easily.

Wine: Fresh, light, dry and aromatic.

Reds

  • Aramon

Origins: Probably Languedoc. Used to be planted all over the region, one of its names was Pisse-vin because it is the most fertile of all grapes and produces large quantities of low alcohol wine. This was the grape which made most of the wine given to troops in the French Army in World War 1 as well as sold to the ordinary people of Paris. There were over 150,000ha in 1958 now there are only 2,260ha.

Bunches: Conical shaped and very big, weighing 400-600 grammes even over 1kg. The grapes are also large in size, spherical and very juicy with thin skins meaning the grapes can burst open if not handled carefully. Leaves are thin and 3 lobed

Growing: Early budding but average ripening dates. Sensitive to mildew but can resist oidium. Also vulnerable to mites, vers de la grappe and fungal problems.

Wine: Fairly neutral with little colour if allowed to grow unchecked. With careful pruning and green harvesting the wine can be fresh and juicy.

  • Grand Noir De La Calmette

Origins: This is a cross, made in 1855, of Petit Bouschet and Aramon, bears some resemblance to Piqupoul Noir which is also a cross of Petit Bouschet. It has almost disappeared so these few vines are a real rarity, now only 0,4ha in the whole of France though there are 1,000ha in Portugal and more around the New World. Also called Gros Noir and Sumo tinto.

Grand Noir

Bunches: Average to big in size, cylindrical in shape with short, woody stalks. The grapes are average in size but some bunches are prone to undeveloped green berries. The skins are quite thick and a rich purple. The juice is quite sweet and reddish as are the pips. Leaves have 5 lobes with prominent teeth and look long.

Growing: Very late budding, vigorous in growth, normal maturity. A little sensitive to oidium, less so to mildew. Hates frosts.

Wine: Low alcohol and ages quite quickly.